Mammary tumors are common in intact female dogs, especially middle-aged and older dogs of smaller breeds like Poodles, Chihuahuas, and Dachshunds, though some larger breeds are also at higher risk. Hormonal exposure plays a key role, with dogs spayed before their first heat cycle having only a 0.5% risk. Treatment typically involves surgical removal, which is potentially curative if the tumor is completely removed. For more invasive, advanced or metastatic cases,. Overall prognosis is quite variable depending upon key clinical features such as histopathologic subtype, tumor size, and metastasis.

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