Melanoma is an aggressive cancer arising from pigment-producing cells, accounting for 7% of canine tumors with certain breeds at higher risk. The most common form is oral melanoma, which affects the mouth and gums, and has the potential to metastasize. Cutaneous melanomas can also occur but are less common than oral melanomas and are often benign. Treatment typically involves surgical removal followed by radiation therapy for local disease control as well as systemic therapy given the metastatic potential. Prognosis varies based on location and stage, with median survival around 17-18 months for stage I oral melanoma post-surgery down to 3 months for stage III, but dermal and ocular forms can have better outcomes with early intervention.

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