Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive cancer originating from white blood cells called histiocytes that are involved in the immune system. There are three main forms, (1) localized, which presents, at least initially, at a single site such as the bones, joints, or lungs, (2) disseminated, which involves multiple organ systems at diagnosis, and (3) hemophagocytic, characterized by cancerous histiocytes destroying blood cells. HS can affect almost any organ, with certain breeds being more susceptible. The localized form is typically treated with surgical removal and chemotherapy drugs like lomustine, doxorubicin, and others, while the disseminated form is typically not surgical and most often primarily treated with chemotherapy. The prognosis varies, with disseminated HS being very poor, localized cases averaging 3-4 months, but a subset achieving longer-term survival with aggressive treatment.

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